The world currently faces economic, environmental, geopolitical and technological challenges. Drought, which results in many environmental risks, is also one of the major global challenges posing a future threat to humanity. Fair and equitable use of water is a critical imperative for sustainable development. To this end, the countries are exploring methods to reduce the risks associated with drought using various technological preventive measures and innovations. The innovations such as fog capture, cloud seeding, evaporation minimization, seawater desalination and iceberg water utilization are already used in different parts of the world. Along with the use of such methods, it is also important not to forget about the rational use of water.
According to Tim Smedley from the BBC, the demand for water is expected to increase by 55% between 2000-2050. Today, 70% of fresh water is used in agriculture. However, the food production required to feed the growing population is expected to increase by 69% by 2035. This in turn will cause an increase in agricultural water use. The remaining 20% and 10% of fresh water will be used in industry and households respectively.
Water is also used in electricity generation and as a coolant in power plants. The energy production is expected to jump by 20% in the future, which means an increase in the use of water in power plants.
Most of the world's fresh water is used in agriculture, so irrigation methods are of great importance. The uses of new irrigation technologies and methods, namely spray and drip irrigation, reduces water use by 70-80%. These methods also result in the increase in productivity of crops. There are various methods and systems for soil irrigation in agriculture. At present, the importance of using irrigation systems that promote the rational use of water and human resources and prevent soil salinization is increasing day by day. In recent years, developments in global engineering and plastic processing have reduced the use of water and energy. As a result, more efficient water irrigation technologies have been developed.
Turkmenistan is actively introducing best practices for the use of innovative and digital technologies for sustainable water management. The country is making investments to implement innovative ways to irrigate land, rational use and provision of water.
PhD Candidate at Marmara University's Department of Political Science and International Relations in Istanbul, Turkey